ÇİMSAN IS THE FIRST CERTIFIED CANOLA SEED PRODUCING COMPANY IN TURKEY PRIVATE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH COMPANY
SOIL AND CLIMATE REQUIREMENTS
- Canola plant has winter and summer varieties.
- In our country is generally winter canola cultivation preferred.
- Canola plant has the ability to grow in all soil types besides sandy and light soil. Suffers in water holding ponding soil.
- Best grown in, humus, deep-bodied, slightly acidic, neutral or slightly alkaline soils.
- Canola plant having completed the rosette (8 - 10 sheets) should go through the winter period is in winter conditions until - 15 ° C durable.
- Entering winter before rosette completing the canola plant will be highly damaged under subzero temperatures. In order to complete rosettes it should be planted in annealed soil or to ensure shooting by irrigation.
- As canola seed is small and in order to have the shooting comfortable to the surface and to have a homogenous plant formation the seed bed should be well prepared and planted to a depth of 1 to 2 cm.
- For a proper output the surface should be levelled, suppressed and rolled or raked.
SOWING PERIOD and HOW
- Mid Anatolia 01 September-15 October
- Thrace, Black Sea, Marmara region; 15 September – 30 October
- The ideal sowing time is in the Mediterranean, Aegean and in southeast regions 15 October-30 November. Due to regions these periods may change.
- For a good germination, the soil temperature should be min. 10 – 12°C. Canola has completed rosette plants develop a strong root structure does not suffer from the cold of winter and increases resistance to disease.
- Canola seeds should be planted with such as mechanical wheat or alfalfa seeder sowing small seeds or with pressure drills. Rolling done after planting, would cause more healthy water distribution. For a good product it is ideal to sow 400-600g of canola seed to face 60-80 plant per m2.
- Excessive frequent and deep cultivation should not be done.
- In deep and frequent planting root structure will not be fully developed and rosettes will not be completed so it may have important damages.
- Canola timely planted and developed healthy and dominant, does not contain weed.
- Weeds capable of rapid development, especially useful in the field area by covering the first development cycle prevents the development of canola plants and causes for common nutrients yield loss. Canola reached 30 - 40 cm length inhibits more strongly the development of weeds.
- Canola, because it is from the same family of wild mustard in canola weed control is difficult. Therefore, it is not recommended to seed Canola on the fields where wild mustard is. If sowed, wild mustard mixed up with Canola seed will deteriorates the quality
- Canola is susceptible to pooling should not be planted on fields with a high ground water. If planted during the rainy periods it is necessary to drain the water from the field.
First fertilization: Canola seeds are mixed with an organomineral fertilizer called SpeedEX SMART before sowing by slightly moisturizing and coating to 20 kg seed with 1 box (800g)
Second fertilization: Before going into winter canola plants on 8 - 10 leaf stage should be fertilized with a nitrogen organomineral liquid leaf fertilizer called CANOLA power. This fertilization by feeding the plant increases strength before winter and provides less affected by winter frosts, acting as stretch of a protective effect on the plant.
Third fertilization: Ammonium sulfate of 25-30 kg/da should be applied during the Canola plants early spring bolting to soil depending on variable soil structure.
Forth fertilization: A fertilization of 25-30 kg/da ammonium sulfate again after 80% of the canola plant flowers' loss in the early stage of grain attitude is ideal for the Canola plant. This four-step fertilization program for the canola plant is an adequate and scientific program.
Fertilization program, are the most important criteria for yield in canola. This correct process leads to a 30-40% yield increase. Wrong fertilization (Urea and Ammonium Nitrate usage) will cause significant yield losses due to extreme growth, decrease of strength and grain pinch instead of increasing the yield.
DISEASES and HARMS
- Main harms of Canola; Soil fleas, field snails, Canola hose handle beetle, aphids and cabbage butterfly.
- Especially in Thrace cabbage butterfly, at the Black Sea and Mediterranean aphid harms are to be seen.
- These harms cause significant yield losses by sucking the water out of the leaves and peduncles and making them white.
- Harmful struggle with pesticides should be made. Important diseases are mildew, Canola root-knot and gray mold. In the Marmara and Thrace region are diseases not common.
HARVEST and STORAGE
- Canola depending on hot or rainy weather and the earliness of the can be harvested 40-50 days after blooming.
- When harvest time come the ripeness of the plant stem, leaf yellowing and capsules are completely dried. Reddish yellow color occurs. If the seeds turn to brown harvest time has come.
- As Canola is ripening from the bottom up, cracking in the capsule would be fully mature expected. In early harvest as the upper capsules are not in fully mature yield loss occurs.
- For a safe storage moisture content of the grains must not exceed 9%. Must be stored in temperature and humidity controlled environment. Otherwise escalate quickly and mold occurs.